Breast Cancer Awareness Month Story: Dusty Maybell

We have an adorable little Chinese pug which we recently got from a rescue organization. She is about seven years old and is the sweetest dog ever. We immediately fell in love with her. We named her Dusty Maybell. She has been in our family about four months.

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At the first of October, which happens to be Breast Cancer Awareness Month, I found a lump in Dusty Maybell’s breast. My first thought was that it could be cancer. This is such a scary word that our family knows all too well. I have had cancer twice, including breast cancer. My husband also had cancer, and my sister passed away two years ago of non-smoker’s lung cancer. Fear immediately takes hold of you for a little bit. I immediately called to take her into Heritage.

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The doctor who saw her said it did feel suspicious (dreaded words). I had some options, but with the history of our family, I wanted it removed. Surgery was set up for a few days later. You try to keep busy and keep your mind off of the “unknown.” Here we just saved a beautiful dog from having puppies the rest of her life only to find out she might not be with us for long. You pray that it will not be cancer.

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When the surgery day arrived, I was relieved and scared. Will they be able to remove all of it? Will she make it through the surgery? Of course, the surgeon was great, and he removed the tumor. Since it looked suspicious, he sent it off, and we waited for the results. Again, you keep yourself busy and try not to think about it while waiting.

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Finally, the news was in. It was cancer…BUT…they got all of it. Bad news followed by great news. So our little Dusty Maybell should have a long life with us and the cancer shouldn’t return.

Mammary Cancer in Pets

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Cancer. The Big C. It can be a scary word when thought of in conjunction with family, friends, and pets. Breast (or mammary) cancer can also be seen in pets, and in some cases, it can be deadly as well.

 

Cancer occurs because of genetic damage to cells which cause mutations in the DNA of the cell. More mutations can occur while an animal ages, leading to cancer. Additionally, there may be a genetic predisposition for some cancers. Mammary cancer is a tumor originating from mammary or breast tissue. These masses can be completely benign, locally invasive (invade surrounding tissues), or metastatic (spread to other parts of the body). Some of these masses can be cured by surgical removal, but some will reoccur or necessitate additional therapy.

 

Mammary cancers in humans tend to occur most frequently in female dogs who are typically around 10 years of age. In pets, they are more common in intact (non-spayed) females. Sex hormones seem to be the most important factor in the development of mammary tumors in dogs. Early spaying can dramatically reduce the risk of mammary cancer. If spaying occurs prior to first heat, there is basically no risk of mammary neoplasia. If spaying is done after the first heat cycle, the risk of breast cancer increases to 8 %. If spaying is delayed until after the second heat cycle, there is a 26% chance of developing breast cancer. After the dog has had three or more heat cycles, there is no sparing effect on the risk of developing breast or mammary tumors.
Additionally, it has been recently shown that dogs that are overweight at a young age have a higher risk of developing breast tumors as they age. If a dog is thin at a young age, it can decrease the risk of some mammary cancers by 40%. If a male dog is affected with breast cancer, the prognosis is usually grave.

 

Mammary masses can appear in one or more glands. They tend to occur in the last two sets of glands (near the hind legs). They can be firm, soft, ulcerated, freely movable, adhered to other tissue, well defined, or diffusely swollen. They can vary in size and may grow slowly or quickly. It is difficult to distinguish between a malignant and benign mass on palpation and exam alone. Signs can vary, and many dogs exhibit no signs, even if the mass is malignant. In some cases, there may be discharge from the mammary gland, ulceration over the mass, pain, anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, and weakness.

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If a mass is noted in the mammary gland (or anywhere else), we recommend an evaluation as soon as possible. At your visit, we may recommend some diagnostics like a fine needle biopsy. This is done with a small needle that is placed into the mass. When the needle is removed, there will be cells on the needle that may allow us to distinguish if this is a mass we should be concerned about. Additionally, other diagnostics may be of value like blood work (complete blood count, blood chemistry/organ function, and thyroid levels), a urinalysis, or a fecal sample. Radiographs (x-rays) of the chest/abdomen may also be done to look for evidence of metastasis.

 

In many cases (even if the tumor is malignant) surgery can be curative, but a biopsy must be done on the removed tissue to confirm if removal is curative or not. Chemotherapy, if needed, can be performed if needed. If the patient is still un-spayed, it is typically recommended to spay at the time of the mass removal because it can decrease the possibility of recurrence.

Approximately 50% of all mammary masses are malignant. Surgery can be curative for a lot of cases, even if malignancy is present. The prognosis for dogs with malignant mammary tumors depends on the following factors: tumor type, size, regional lymph node (lymph gland) involvement, presence or absence of distant metastases, completeness of resection, local behavior, rapid growth, ulceration, attachment to other tissues, vascular or lymphatic invasion, and tumor differentiation.

 

After removal, we recommend annual physical exams and preventative care as recommended by our veterinary staff. Radiographs may be recommended periodically if the mass was malignant or not completely resected to monitor for metastasis.

 

Owners should examine their dogs at regular intervals for any lumps, bumps, or swellings and take them for yearly veterinary checkups. All lumps should be surgically removed and biopsied. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a good outcome.

 

-Kelvin Urday D.V.M.

 

Resources

http://www.caninecancer.com/mammary.html

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2087&aid=460

http://veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com/todays-daily-dose-mammary-tumors

http://www.oncolink.org/types/article.cfm?id=6008

http://vet.osu.edu/vmc/companion/our-services/oncology-and-hematology/common-tumor-types/canine-mammary-tumors

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/cancer/c_dg_mammary_gland_tumor

http://www.vcahospitals.com/main/pet-health-information/article/animal-health/mammary-tumors-in-dogs-malignant/412

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-Kelvin Urday D.V.M.